Fossil fuel emissions

Fossil Fuel Emissions

Emissions data for years 2018 and 2019 are preliminary.

Cite as: Friedlingstein et al. (2020).

Friedlingstein et al., 2020: The Global Carbon Budget 2020. Available at: Earth System Science Data.


The 1959-2017 estimates for fossil fuels and industry are primarily from an update of Gilfillan et al. (2019).

We modify these data as follows:

  • Where available (42 countries) the national estimates reported by Annex-1 parties to the UNFCCC (2020) during 1990-2018 are used instead of CDIAC data.
  • Emissions for India during 2009-2019 are overwritten using data from Andrew (2020a).
  • Emissions for Norway during 1973–1989 are overwritten using superior data derived from local sources.
  • Cement emissions are updated from Andrew (2019).
  • Emissions for Aruba before 1950 and for the countries of the former Soviet Union in 1942-43 are updated based on information in Andrew (2020b).
  • Global total emissions are calculated as the sum of all countries' emissions plus emissions from international bunker fuels.
  • The 2018 and 2019 estimates (or just 2019 where UNFCCC data are available) are preliminary and based on energy statistics published by BP (BP, 2020).

Cement emissions

Cite as Andrew, R., 2019. Global CO2 emissions from cement production, 1928–2018. Earth System Science Data, 11(4), 1675-1710, DOI: 10.5194/essd-11-1675-2019. Available at:


Consumption-based Fossil Fuel Emissions

Cite as: Updated from Peters et al. (2011) and Peters et al. (2012)

Peters, GP, Minx, JC, Weber L, and Edenhofer, O. 2011. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1006388108. Available at:
Peters, GP, Davis, SJ and Andrew, R 2012. A synthesis of carbon in international trade. Biogeosciences, 9, 3247-3276. DOI: 10.5194/bg-9-3247-2012. Available at:
The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources.


Land-Use Change Emissions

Cite as: Updated from Houghton and Nassikas (2017), Hansis et al. (2015), Gasser et al. (2020).

Houghton, R. A. and Nassikas, A. A. (2017), Global and regional fluxes of carbon from land use and land cover change 1850-2015, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 31(3), 456–472, DOI:10.1002/2016gb005546 Available at:

Hansis, E., Davis, S.J., Pongratz, J., 2015. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2014GB004997. DOI: 10.1002/2014GB004997. Available at:

Gasser, T., Crepin, L., Quilcaille, Y., Houghton, R. A., Ciais, P. and Obersteiner, M., 2020. Historical CO2 emissions from land use and land cover change and their uncertainty, Biogeosciences 17, 4075–4101, DOI: 10.5194/bg-17-4075-2020. Available at:


The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources. Data for years 2018 and 2019 are preliminary.


Gross Domestic Product

GDP: IEA/OECD 2019. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Highlights. Paris. Available at:



UN, 2019. World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision. United Nations Population Division. Available at:


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